Fly ash is a byproduct from burning pulverized coal in electric power generating plants. During combustion, mineral impurities in the coal (clay, feldspar, quartz, and shale) fuse in suspension and float out of the combustion chamber with the exhaust gases. As the fused material rises, it cools and solidifies into spherical glassy particles called fly ash. Fly ash is collected from the exhaust gases by electrostatic precipitators or bag filters. The fine powder does resemble portland cement but it is chemically different. Fly ash chemically reacts with the byproduct calcium hydroxide released by the chemical reaction between cement and water to form additional cementitious products that improve many desirable properties of concrete. All fly ashes exhibit cementitious properties to varying degrees depending on the chemical and physical properties of both the fly ash and cement. Compared to cement and water, the chemical reaction between fly ash and calcium hydroxide typically is slower resulting in delayed hardening of the concrete. Delayed concrete hardening coupled with the variability of fly ash properties can create significant challenges for the concrete producer and finisher when placing steel-troweled floors.
The benefits and advantages of fly ash have been well publicised. Over the last 50 years fly ash as a product has moved from the industrial waste streams to being recognized as a construction material. A construction material that will lower the overall embodied energy of the built environment and when used to replace cement will reduce CO2 emissions. Common use of fly ash include:
- Feed stock in the production of cement.
- Supplementary cementitious material in concrete production.
- Structural material for landfills and embankments.
- Ingredient in waste stabilization and/or solidification.
- Ingredient in soil treatment.
- Roller compacted construction (RCC)-dams and hardstand areas.
- Component of flowable fill products.
- Constituent in road bases, sub-base, and pavements.
- Mineral filler in asphalt.
- Component of geopolymer concrete.